Investigating the Effectiveness of BPE: The Power of Shorter Sequences - Naver Labs Europe
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Abstract

Byte-Pair Encoding (BPE) is an unsupervised sub-word tokenization technique, commonly used in neural machine translation and other NLP tasks. Its effectiveness makes it a de facto standard, but the reasons for this are not well understood. We link BPE to the broader family of dictionary-based compression algorithms and compare it with other members of this family. Our experiments across datasets, language pairs, translation models, and vocabulary size show that – given a fixed vocabulary size budget – the fewer tokens an algorithm needs to cover the test set, the better the translation (as measured by BLEU).