|Mert Bulent Sariyildiz, Yannis Kalantidis, Diane Larlus, Karteek Alahari|
|International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV), virtual event, 11-17 October, 2021|
Measuring concept generalization, i.e., the extent to which models trained on a set of (seen) visual concepts can be leveraged to recognize a new set of (unseen) concepts, is a popular way of evaluating visual representations, especially in a self-supervised learning framework. Nonetheless, the choice of unseen concepts for such an evaluation is usually made arbitrarily, and independently from the seen concepts used to train representations, thus ignoring any semantic relationships between the two. In this paper, we argue that the semantic relationships between seen and unseen concepts affect generalization performance and propose ImageNet-CoG, a novel benchmark on the ImageNet-21K (IN-21K) dataset that enables measuring concept generalization in a principled way. Our benchmark leverages expert knowledge that comes from WordNet in order to define a sequence of unseen IN-21K concept sets that are semantically more and more distant from the ImageNet-1K (IN-1K) subset, a ubiquitous training set. This allows us to benchmark visual representations learned on IN-1K out-of-the box. We conduct a large-scale study encompassing 31 convolution and transformer-based models and show how different architectures, levels of supervision, regularization techniques and use of web data impact the concept generalization performance.
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